Can a smartphone capture a 3D image of the optic nerve?

Can a smartphone capture a 3D image of the optic nerve?

I asked myself that question and got to work.

As an initial step, I recorded an eye funduscopy (as «indirect monocular ophthalmoscopy»). This was done with a smartphone and a 20D magnifying glass.

After that, I captured the sharpest frames where the Optic Nerve (NO) could be clearly seen.

Funduscopy examination using smartphone
Funduscopy examination using smartphone — Image by the author.

Then I picked the best.

funduscopy image from video
Funduscopy image from the video — Image by the author.

It is here that image processing begins to work its magic.

Through the use of a public domain program (ImageJ), I was able to extract different information from the image.

Those data were then represented differently until I reached the desired result.

ONH Isolines
ONH Isolines — Image by the author.
ONH Isolines, side view
ONH Isolines, side view — Image by the author.
ONH 3D, side view
ONH 3D, side view — Image by the author
ONH Pseudo 3D Image
ONH Pseudo 3D Image — Image by the author.

The final step was to compare the values of the image against a master image to which I previously knew the values of Disc Area, Disc Perimeter, Cup Area, and Cup/Disc Ratio (previously obtained by HRT-II).

To give to the patient, I generated a report based on these images and values.

Example of a Funduscopy Report
Example of a Funduscopy Report — Image by the author.

What do you think of the result?

  • This is just an exercise, a proof of concept. I am aware that the 3D image is a pseudo-3D image and the values associated with cup depth depend on video color differences. No scientific validity is intended for the results obtained.

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